Patricia. Demunck and sobo note that the ethnographer begins with a topic and discusses that topic with various people who know about. 43 To conduct participant observation, one must live in the context to facilitate prolonged engagement; prolonged engagement is one of the activities listed by lincoln and guba (1994) to establish trustworthiness. 45 angrosino and Deperez (2000) advocate using a structured observation process to maximize the efficiency of the field experience, minimize researcher bias, and facilitate replication or verification by others, all of which make the findings more objective. 39 bernard states that "the most important thing you can do to stop being a freak is to speak the language of the people you're studyingand speak it well" (1994,.145).
56 bernard notes that one must become explicitly aware, being attentive in his/her observations, reporting what is seen, not inferred. Ellis, Carolyn (2003, May). Yet there are situations in which participation is required for understanding. Kottak (1994) defines enculturation as "the social process by which culture is learned and transmitted across generations" (p.16).
The third type of observation, considered by angrosino and Deperez to be the most systematic, is selective observation, in which the researcher focuses on different types of activities to help delineate the differences in those activities (angrosino deperez, 2000,.677). The function of a research design is to ensure that the evidence obtained enables you to effectively address the research problem logically and as unambiguously as possible. 54 wolcott (2001) adds to the discussion of how to conduct observations. Several years ago, when I submitted an article for publication, one of the reviewers provided feedback that it would be helpful to the reader if I described the participants as, for example, i wrote my thesis on life experience simpsons "a 35 year old divorced mother of three, who worked at Wal-Mart." This. In this way, he suggests, the researcher is being respectful of the participants by using a variety of methods to ensure that what he/she thinks is being said, in fact, matches the understanding of the participant. Field notes in the first notebook should include jottings, maps, diagrams, interview notes, and observations. He bases his model development on guidelines by Ward. 52 merriam (1998) adds that the researcher should: pay attention, shifting from a "wide" to a "narrow" angle perspective, focusing on a single person, activity, interaction, then returning to a view of the overall situation; look for key words in conversations to trigger later recollection. He/she should also reflect on what someone from another discipline might find of interest there.